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 XPS  Level 3  Spectral line identification

 Spectral line identification

Recording the "wide SCAN" is generally the first step in the specimen characterization and this regardless of the technique involved. As we have just seen it, using two sources allows us to highlight the Auger transitions.

For the other lines, start with the most intense. Each line corresponds to a given binding energy and tables have been set up to show which orbital is associated with each energy. In some cases there are several solutions.

In such a case, for each solution, check the secondary lines positions and ratios .

Let's go through an example:
We have a peak at 163 eV; Is it from S2p3/2 or Bi4f5/2 ?
By looking in a table, we can notice that:
In the case of sulphur, we should have a secondary (less intense) peak at 227 eV.
In the case of bismuth, we should have a main (more intense) peak at 158 eV.

It should be known that certain acquisition programs deal with this procedure and propose solutions which you must validate.

Do not forget to check the possible presence of "ghost peaks".